Another term form body fat.

adipose tissue

Fat in the body


Require oxygen.


Being both hydrophilic and hydrophobic--tit attracts both fats and water


Do not require oxygen.


The desire to eat


AKA germs, are microscopic organisms not visible with the naked eye.  Pathogenic bacteria are harmful and cause diesease whereas probiotic bacteria are benificial and promote health.

Bacteria are everywhere, both inside and outside of your body. They can live in a variety of environments.



The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is the nation’s premier system of health-related telephone surveys that collect state data about U.S.


The unit used to measure the energy in food.

The average person needs about 2000 to 2500 calories.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Cell differentiation

The process in which a cell changes from one cell type to another. Usually, the cell changes to a more specialized type.


Something that persists for a long time or constantly recurring.


A false or misleading picture/title on the Internet that entices people to click it to read more, often leading to items or services for sale.(The click and bait scam.)

Clostridium perfringens

Bacteria that is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness (food poisoning). CDC estimates these bacteria cause nearly 1 million illnesses in the United States every year.


Having infrequent dry hard stool that is passed with difficulty and pain.


Harmful substance in a food that causes harm to the body. They may be physical contaminants such as hair or class, chemical contaminants such as mercury or pesticide residue, or biological such as bacteria, mold, or parasites.


Either accidental or intentional addition of a biological substance, chemical, or foreign object that makes food un-safe for human consumption.

Cross contamination

The process by which bacteria or other microorganisms are unintentionally transferred from one substance or object to another, with harmful effect.


The process by which bacteria or other microorganisms are unintentionally transferred from one substance or object to another, often resulting in a foodborne illness.


The fluid within a cell that surrounds the organelles.

Danger zone

The temperature that bacteria thrive in foods, typically from 40 to 140 degrees fahrenheit.

Delaney Clause

Legislation passed by the U.S. Congress in 1958 that forbids the addition to food any additives shown to be carcinogenic in any species of animal or in humans.


A disease caused by the body not making the hormone insulin or the inability to use insulin. This results in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevated levels of glucose in the blood and urine.


Loose, watery feces that occur more frequently than usual


The type foods that a person consumes.


To split nutrients into smaller substances.

Examples: Starch is split into glucose. Proteins are split into amino acids.

Digestive tract.

The path that food and liquids travel through when they are swallowed, digested, absorbed, and leave the body as feces. It begins in the mouth and ends at the anus.


Benign outpouchings in the intestines that are inflamed and very painful.


Small pouches in the wall or lining of any portion of the digestive tract that often cause pain


A method of food preservation in which most of the water is removed from a food. Removal of water inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and mold that spoil the food.

E Coli

A large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses. In rare cases, it may result in death as was true of the Jack-in-the-Box outbreak in the 1990s.


a pure substance consisting of only one type of atoms

Energy balance

Maintaining calories (energy) consumed with the calories expended. Consuming more calories that expended results in weight gain. Expending more calories than consumed results in weight loss.


The addition of the original nutrients back into processed foods. Refined grains are stripped of thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, folate, and iron. Enriched grain products have these nutrients added back.


The surroundings or conditions in which a person lives


Environmental Protection Agency

Escherichia Coli

Short for the bacteria Escherichia coli. Many of the species are harmless but some cause foodborne illnesses. The E. coli O157: H7 bacteria strain that had contaminated hamburger patties sold at area Jack in the Box restaurants in 1993 was responsible for several deaths.


The primary female reproductive hormone stimulates breast development and accumulation of fat in the hip and thighs during adolescence.


The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger and improve nutrition and food security,

fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamins A, D, E, and K anc classes as fat-suluble because they are typically found with fatty foods and act like fats in the body.

fatty acids

A molecule containing chain of carbons and hydrogens attached to an acid group


Food and Drug Administration


Edible substances that provide nutrients.


Plants and animals that we eat

Food additive

Any substance that is added to food, either directly or indirectly.

Food aversions

An extreme dislike for a food that typically results from a bad experience the affected person had as a child when being forced to eat the food.

food chain

Food production, processing, distribution, consumption and
disposal of foods. Also known as food system.

food infections

Inflammation of the stomach and bowels caused by microbial contamination of foods or beverages.

food intoxications

Inflammation of the stomach and bowels that results after consuming a food or beverage that is contaminated with a toxin.

Food irradiation

The application of ionizing radiation to food to destroy micoroganisms and make the food safe to consume.

Food law

Legislation which regulates the production, trade and handling of food. Basically, it covers the regulation of food control, food safety and relevant aspects of food trade.

Food poisoning

The general term use for a illness that occurs after eating foods contaminated with pathogens.

food recall

A product recall is a request from a manufacturer to return a product after the discovery of safety issues or product defects that might endanger the consumer or put the maker/seller at risk of legal action

food system

Food production, processing, distribution, consumption and
disposal of foods. Also known as food chain.

Foodborne disease

A disease caused by consuming contaminated food or drink. Also known as foodborne illness or food poisoning.

Foodborne illness

An illness that results after eating a contaminated food. Also called foodborne diesease or food poisoning.


The addition of a nutrient to a food that otherwise does not contain it.


Lowering the temperature of a food to below 32 degree.
Home freezers shoudl be kept below 0 degree fahrenheit.


The kingdom the molds and yeasts are a species under


The inherited characteristics of a person passed from genes received from parents.


Another term for the four disease causing microorganism categories:  bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protazoa.


Known as the ‘hunger hormone’ because it stimulates appetite, increases food intake.  It also stimulates the release of growth hormone; unlike ghrelin itself, breaks down fat tissue and causes the build-up of muscle.  Weight loss stimulates ghrelin, making weight loss more difficult for some.


A protein found in wheat, rye, and oats. People who have celiac disease must avoid gluten-containing foods.

good source

Foods must provide between 10 and 19% of the Daily Value.


High density lipoproteins. Function in removing cholesterol from body tissued. High levels are associated with improved health outcomes.


According to the WHO,   "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity"


A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

heart disease.

Conditions that affect the heart; the most common type is coronary artery disease (CAD), which affects the blood flow to the heart often resulting in a heart attack.


Swollen veins in lower rectum that often bleed


A steady-state of substances within the body.


Growing two plants together in a special way to help the plants develop the natural traits we like


The-carbon double bonds, thus making the fatty acid saturated


Repels water.

Imperial system

A system of measurement in use in the United States, the United Kingdom, and other Commonwealth countries consisting of units such as the inch, the mile, and the pound.

Imperial system (of measurements)

A system of measurement in use in the United States, United Kingdom, and other Commonwealth countries consisting of units such as the inch, the mile, and the pound.


An illness transmitted from one organism to another


The body's immune system response to a stimulus, such as bacteria or viruses. Recent studies, however, show diets high in sugar and fat, or having excess body fat cause inflammation.


As related to chemistry, a substance that does not contain carbon


Illness that occurs from eating a food that contains a toxin produced by bacteria


Process of exposing foods to ionizing radiation that will improves the safety and extend the shelf life of foods by reducing or eliminating microorganisms and insects.


A yogurt-like drink made from milk that is fermented with probiotic bacteria.


Process that results from a very low carb diet that forces the body to convert fat to ketone bodies.


Food that complies with the strict dietary standards of traditional Jewish law.


Low desnsity lipoproteins.   Transports cholesterol to various tissues in the body. High levels associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

life cycle

The stages through which a person passes through during his or her lifetime.


The way in which a person or group lives.


A red carotenoid found in tomatoes, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and papaya


The nutrients needed in relatively large amounts (between 50 and 150+ grams).  They include carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.


Lack of proper nutrition, caused by not having enough to eat or not eating enough of the right things.


Physical substance that occupies space


The dark pigment in skin.


A subset of systematic reviews in which the results are combined and statistically analyzed.

It allows for single conclusion and many similar studies that has greater statistical power.

Metric system

The system of measurement that uses the meter, liter, and gram as base units of length (distance), capacity (volume), and weight (mass) respectively.


Short name for a microorganism, especially a bacterium causing disease or fermentation.


All of the microorganisms in and on the body that have beneficial effects.


Vitamin and minerals that are need in "microscopic" amounts. Young women need only 18 mg of iron and 75 mg of vitamin C Protein is a macronutrient because women need about 50 to 60 grams of it each day.


Mold is a species of fungi.
Kingdom: Fungi Species: mold


Any toxic substance produced by a fungus.


Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit


Non-exercise activity thermogenesis,  are the calories burned by the movements we make during normal living.  NEAT includes the physical movement in our lives that isn't planned exercise or sports such walking to class, cleaning house, or shopping.



National Health and Nutrition Survey. A large scale surveillance survey conducted every few years by CDC.


Substances in foods and supplements that either promote growth, maintain body tissues, provide calories, and/or help regulate body processes.

Nutrient density

Containing a high amount of vitamins, minerals, and protein compared to calories


Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals and water.


The branch of science that deals with nutrients and the affect they have on the body.

nutrition  literacy

The set of abilities needed to understand the importance of good nutrition in maintaining health.


An environment that promotes increased food intake, non-healthful foods, and physical inactivity


WHO considers it as an "abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health."  Having a BMI over 30. Most people weigh 50 pounds or more than is desirable.


Open Education Resources.  Materials for teaching or learning that are either in the public domain or have been released under a license that allows them to be freely used, changed, or shared with others. Basically, they are free to students and teachers.


Consumes both plants and animal foods.

Open education resource

Materials for teaching or learning that are either in the public domain or have been released under a license that allows them to be freely used, changed, or shared with others. Basically, they are free to students and teachers.


In chemistry and nutrition, organic means carbon containing.

Organic foods

Foods grown or produced without synthetic pesticides or fertilizer, and all growers and processors must be certified by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA).


In chemistry, a substance containing a carbon-hydrogen bond.


The natural process of hardening bone.


When two or more people get the same illness from the same contaminated food or drink,


When two or more people get the same illness from the same contaminated food or drink.


Have a BMI between 25 up to 30, or weighing about 25 lbs more than is desirable.


An organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its food from or at the expense of its host.


The process in which packaged and non-packaged foods are treated with mild heat, usually to less than 221 °F (100 °C) to eliminate harmful bacteria and extend shelf life.


Substances that cause disease.  For example, pathogenic bacteria.  Pathogens are disease-causing microorganisms.


Disease-causing microorganisms


Foods likely to decay or go bad quickly.


A substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals.  The subtypes of pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, rodenticides, and fungicides.


Lipids composed of a glycerol backbone with two fatty acids and one phosphorus containing group attached.


Plant derived sterols that help reduce the amount of animal-derived cholesterol is absorbed.

Plant breeding

The science of maximizing plants’ positive genetic traits to produce desirable effects.  It differs from genetic engineering.


Indigestible foods, primarily soluble fibers, that stimulate the growth of certain strains of bacteria (probiotics) in the large intestine and provide health benefits to the host. (Prebiotics serve as foods source for probiotic bacteria.)


Techniques applied to a food to protect  it from microbial contamination and the extend shelf-life


Bacteria that have health benefits. Also known as live active cultures.


A variety of operations by which raw foodstuffs are made suitable for consumption, cooking, or storage.

Room temperature

The temperature range that most people feed comfortable, generally between 65 to 80 degrees fahrenheit.


The first part of the stomach of ruminant ainmals (cows, goats, and sheep) in which cellulose is broken down by the action of symbiotic microorganisms. Trans fatty acids may be formed.


A bacteria frequently found in eggs and other protein foods. CDC estimates Salmonella cause about 1.35 million illnesses, 26,500 hospitalizations, and 420 deaths in the United States every year.


A feeling of fullness

saturated fat

Fats that are solid at room temeperature and have no double bonds.

Scientific method

The process of objectively establishing facts through testing and experimentation. The basic process involves making an observation, forming a hypothesis, making a prediction, conducting an experiment and finally analyzing the results.

It has been the basis in developing of science since at least the 17th century.

Severe obesity

Having a BMI greater than 40 or weighing 100 pounds more than the ideal body weight.


The group of lipid with a ring sturcture. Examples include cholesterol, estrogen, and tesostorone.


Food and other products that are produced, processed, distributed, and disposed of in ways that preserve the environment.

Systematic reviews

A systematic review is a summary of all of the literature on a particular topic, that meets pre-defined eligibility criteria.


An increase in temperature.

When our bodies produce energy as ATP, a small amount of heat is released.


The production of heat.

Thyroid hormone

A substance that is  poisonous


A poison, often produced by bacteria, viruses, or molds in foods. Eating a food contaminated with a toxin results in food poisoning.

Trans fat

Fatty acids either formed during the hydrogenation process making liquid oils more solid, or formed naturally in ruminant animals (cows, sheep and goats). Meat and dairy contain natural trans fat.


The main type of lipid in the body and food supply. Concist of a glycerol backbone with three fatty acids attached.


A body weight that is too low to maintain health.


A fatty acid having one or more double bonds.


United States Department of Agriculture

Vacuum packing

A process by which oxygen levels are reduced in packaged food, limiting the growth of aerobic bacteria or fungi, and preventing the evaporation of flavoring substances.


An very small infectious agent that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria, such as the coronavirus, or those that cause flu and colds.


A thick and sticky consistency


To eject matter from the stomach through the mouth

water-soluble vitamins

The B-complex vitamins and vitamin C.


The state of being in good health, especially as an actively pursued goal


The World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health.


Health promoting substances in animal foods that are believed to provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients that food contains.


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Introduction to Nutrition and Wellness Copyright © 2022 by Janet Colson; Sandra Poirier; and Yvonne Dadson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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